Effect of Utilizing Health Belief Model on Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviour of Visually Impaired Women toward Breast Self-examination

The Open Nursing Journal 19 Jan 2023 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/18744346-v16-e221221-2022-115



Breast self-examination is the most important first step in early breast cancer detection. The study aimed to measure the effectiveness of utilizing a health belief model on knowledge, beliefs, and behaviour of visually impaired women toward breast self-examination.


A quasi-experimental design (pre/posttest) was utilized in the current study conducted at Al Nour Wal Amal Association for visually impaired women in Cairo governorate, Egypt. A purposive sample of 42 visually impaired women was included in the study. Three tools were used for the purpose of data collection, namely (I): Structured interviewing knowledge questionnaire, (II): A breast self-examination checklist, and (III): Health beliefs assessment scale.


The findings revealed a highly statistically significant difference in visually impaired women's total knowledge, total practice, and total health beliefs scores for breast self-examination before and after the program. The women's total knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs improved in the posttest compared to the pretest.


The study results concluded that there was an improvement in knowledge, practice, and health beliefs regarding breast self-examination among visually impaired women after program implementation, which emphasized that educational programs based on the health beliefs model have a significant positive effect in improving women’s knowledge, practice, and health beliefs toward breast self-examination. It is recommended to establish educational programs to raise awareness about breast cancer and breast self-examination among visually impaired women through special schools and community associations. Moreover, community health nurses play a crucial role in educating women about breast self-examination as they are in a unique position to raise breast cancer awareness, especially among at-risk groups.

Keywords: Knowledge, Beliefs, Behaviour, Visually impaired women, Breast self-examination, Health belief model.
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