Knowledge and Skill Needs in E-course Training of an Expanded Program for Immunization Staff in Thailand: A Mixed-method Design

The Open Nursing Journal 30 Sept 2022 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/18744346-v16-e2208101



This study was conducted to examine essential content needs in E-course training to improve the knowledge and skills of immunization staff members in Thailand.


This study used a mixed-method research design. Quantitative methodology was used to study 449 staff members of government care facilities in the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Surveys were conducted by using the perceived needs for immunization training questionnaire. Qualitative methodology employed in-depth interview guidelines on immunization content that were used to interview 14 staff members at EPI. The quantitative data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Interview data were analyzed in content analysis.


The participants were immunization staff members of three positions: registered nurses, pharmacists and public health technical officers. The participants had different E-course training content needs concerning vaccine-report registration, administering the vaccines and dealing with adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with a statistical significance of .05. This was consistent with the findings from in-depth interviews, which showed staff members had both varying and connected work responsibilities, giving members from all three groups a need for the same basic knowledge pertaining to immunization. In some aspects, staff members required different training content details depending on job descriptions. Public health technical officers were found to require details on vaccine-report registration. Nurses required knowledge dealing with AEFI and administering the vaccines. Pharmacists needed details on the cold-chain system the most.


Executives at the policy level should specify essential content requiring development for each position in addition to designing training models to meet the needs of EPI staff, enabling access and promoting effective use.

Keywords: E-course, Training, Knowledge, Skill, Needs, Staff, Expanded program for immunization.
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