Pressure Ulcer Risk Evaluation in Critical Patients: Clinical and Social Characteristics

Mônica Suêla de Azevedo Macena, Rayanne Suely da Costa Silva, Maria Isabel Da Conceição Dias Fernandes*, Ana Beatriz de Almeida Medeiros, Kadyjina Daiane Batista Lúcio, Ana Luisa Brandão de Carvalho Lira
Nursing Department, Federal University of Rio Grande of Norte, Natal, Rio Grande of Norte, Brazil

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 845
Abstract HTML Views: 323
PDF Downloads: 266
ePub Downloads: 175
Total Views/Downloads: 1609
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 507
Abstract HTML Views: 249
PDF Downloads: 221
ePub Downloads: 147
Total Views/Downloads: 1124

Creative Commons License
© 2017 Furushima et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this authors at the Nursing Department, Federal University of Rio Grande of Norte, Natal, Rio Grande of Norte, Brazil; Tel: (+55) 84-99618-9723; E-mail:



Pressure ulcers increase hospital stays and treatment costs due to their complications. Therefore, recognizing factors that contribute to pressure ulcer risk are important to patient safety.


To evaluate the association between the scores of the Waterlow, Braden, and Norton scales and clinical and social characteristics in critically ill patients.


A cross-sectional study of 78 patients in an adult intensive care unit of a university hospital in Northeastern Brazil was conducted from July to December 2015. Data included social and clinical information and the risk factors of the Braden, Norton and Waterlow scales. Data were analysed by the descriptive and inferential statistics.


Most of the participants were female, adults and elderly people with brown skin colour, low education levels and insufficient income. Most of them showed a high risk for developing pressure ulcers using the three evaluated scales. Age, smoking status, diabetes and hypertension were associated with scores on the Waterlow, Braden and Norton scales.


Age, use of the tobacco, diabetes and hypertension were associated with the risk of pressure ulcers in ICU patients.

Keywords: Nursing, Inpatients, Intensive care units, Skin, Pressure ulcer, Risk factors.