Validity and Reliability Study in Turkish COVID-19 Literacy Scale

Nihan Türkoğlu1
, Esin Kavuran2, *

1 Department of Public Health Nursing, Nursing Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey
2 Department of Nursing Fundamentals, Nursing Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey

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© 2023 Türkoğlu and Kavuran

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Nursing Fundamentals, Nursing Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey; Tel: +90 442 231 23 15; Fax: +90 442 236 09 84;



It is critical to conduct studies on the evaluation of COVID-19 health literacy in different cultures. Health literacy can make it easier to distinguish between reliable information about COVID-19 and misinformation, empowering individuals to make illuminated health decisions and to practice healthy and protective behaviours.


The aim of this study is to verify the validity and reliability of COVID-19 Health Literacy Scale (COVID-19-HLS) for Turkish.


This was a cross-sectional-descriptive study. The sample was randomly divided into two groups for factor analysis. A total of 712 individuals were included for exploratory (n=350) and confirmatory (n=362) factor analysis. The data were gathered by using the COVID-19-HLS and the Personal Variables Form. Language validity, content validity, item analyses, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to determine the validity and reliability of COVID-19-HLS.


Internal consistency reliability of the scale was found as 0.94. Item-total score correlation values of the scale were between 0.21 and 0.70, and the intra-class correlation coefficient was determined as 0.933. It was found that the item factor loads varied between 0.735 and 0.456 and the four-factor structure of the scale was found to be acceptable.


In line with the analyses, it was shown that the scale is a valid and reliable instrument for Turkish society.

Keywords: COVID 19, Health literacy, Information, Outbreak, Validation study.