Conceptualisation and Definition of Personal Recovery among People with Schizophrenia: Additionally Review

Jutharat Thongsalab1, *
, Jintana Yunibhand1
, Penpaktr Uthis1

1 Faculty of Nursing, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10 300, Thailand

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© 2023 Thongsalab et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Nursing, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10 300, Borommaratchachonnani Srisataphat, Building, Rama 1 Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand;
Tel: (662)-218-1131; Fax: (662)-218-1130; E-mail:



Personal recovery is an essential mental health goal in schizophrenia. Personal recovery is deeply individual and cannot be uniformly characterised for each person. Therefore, the concept and definition of personal recovery in schizophrenia are still ambiguous.


To clarify the definition and conceptualisation of personal recovery in schizophrenia patients


The study followed Arksey and O’Malley’s framework stages. Related electronic documents were searched in ScienceDirect, Scopus, SpringerLink, and Google Scholar.


Ten systematic review studies were included in this paper. Recovery conceptualisation is various perspectives of people with schizophrenia regarding personal recovery as follows: “Recovery as a journey”, “Recovery as a process”, “Recovery as an outcome”, and “Recovery components.”. In addition, it was codified into an operational definition congruent with the CHIME plus D (connectedness, hope, identity, meaning in life, empowerment, and difficulty).


Conceptualisation of personal recovery appears in line with the personal recovery process and outcomes close to each other. Therefore, instruments should be developed for measuring both recovery processes and outcomes simultaneously. Additionally, nursing intervention should be designed by aiming to promote and address CHIME plus D. Personal recovery studies in schizophrenia patients have been limited to developed countries. Therefore, in order to acquire a more thorough conceptualisation and characterisation, future research ought to take into account the characteristics, determinants, and outcomes of personal recovery among people with schizophrenia who come from developing nations and minority ethnic groups.

Keywords: Concept formation, Culture, Goals, Personal recovery, Schizophrenia, Scoping review.