RESEARCH ARTICLE


Nurses’ Perceptions Regarding Exposure to COVID-19 Risks, and Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak on their Work and Psychosocial Health: A Cross-sectional Study



Nora H. Elneblawi1, Rami A. Elshatarat1, Khadega A. Elhefnawy1, 2, Inas A. Ebeid3, 4, Mohammed S. Aljohani1, Naif S. Alzahrani1, Abdulaziz Mofdy Almarwani4, Zyad T. Saleh5, *
1 Department of Medical and Surgical Nursing, College of Nursing, Taibah University, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt
3 Department of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Portsaid University, Portsaid, Egypt
4 Department of Psychiatric Nursing, College of Nursing, Taibah University, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Clinical Nursing, School of Nursing, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Elneblawi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Clinical Nursing, School of Nursing, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan 11942;
Tel: +962785358313; Fax: +96265300244; E-mails: zyad.saleh2@ju.edu.jo, Zyad.Saleh@ju.edu.jo


Abstract

Introduction:

Coronavirus (COVID) is a large family of RNA viruses that cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe symptoms.

Objectives:

Determine nurses’ perceptions in Saudi Arabia regarding their risks, measures and coping mechanisms to prevent COVID-19 infection and transmission and the significant associated factors for their anxiety.

Methods:

This is a correlational cross-sectional study. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit a total of 345 nurses. A valid and reliable questionnaire was adapted from a previous study and the generalized anxiety disorder-2 items (GAD-2) scale was used to collect the data.

Results:

The majority of the participants (75.7%) perceived that they were most likely at risk of getting COVID-19. In terms of preventative actions,84.3% said they were avoiding crowded places, 77.4% were adhering to protocols and recommended measures, about 73.0% of participants were taking nutritional supplements and vitamins, practicing exercises, and changing out of work clothes, 54.8% were taking a shower before going home, and 53.9% were temporarily staying away from home in alternative housing to prevent having COVID-19 or transmitting the virus to their relatives. Furthermore, significant association was found between the participants’ anxiety and the male gender (r=0.1, p=0.04), less nursing experience (r=0.41, p=0.02), number of children (r=0.35, p=0.03). Additionally, participants exposed to COVID-19 patients, who did not implement the measures and coping mechanisms to prevent COVID-19 were significantly associated with a high level of GAD-2.

Conclusion:

The majority of nurses perceived that they were at high risk of getting COVID-19 and were concerned that they could easily transmit COVID-19 to their relatives. As a result, many implemented preventive measures to protect themselves and prevent transmission of COVID-19 to their families and relatives. The continued attendance of health education programs about COVID-19 as well as the implementation of basic standard precautions, is essential to protect health workers and their families.

Keywords: Novel coronavirus (COVID – 19), Global pandemic, Coping mechanisms, Saudi nurses, Generalized anxiety disorder, Psychological health.