RESEARCH ARTICLE


Hospital-acquired Pressure Ulcers in Trauma Patients: A Retrospective Study of 410 Patients at a Referral Trauma Center in the North of Iran



Mohammadreza Mobayen1, Samad Karkhah1, 2, Parisa Bagheri3, Alireza Feizkhah1, 4, Mahtab Taati Moghadam4, Hamideh Mohmmadnia5, Mahsa Sadeghi1, *
1 Burn and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
2 Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
3 Research Center for Health Information Management, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
4 Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
5 Guilan Road Trauma Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Mobayen et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Burn and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran;
E-mail: Mahsa_heris@yahoo.com


Abstract

Background:

Pressure ulcers (PUs) are among the most common chronic ulcers and complications of hospitalization.

Objective:

The present study aims to evaluate the prevalence of hospital-acquired PUs and their grades in trauma patients, comparing demographic characteristics, clinical features, and outcomes among patients without and with PUs referred to a trauma center in the North of Iran.

Methods:

In a retrospective study, 410 patients with trauma referred to a trauma center in the North of Iran were enrolled. Data were collected using a simple random sampling from March 2019 to September 2019.

Results:

The prevalence of PU in patients with trauma was 27.6%. Grade III (35.5%) and grade I (3.5%) wounds had the highest and lowest frequency of PU, respectively (P<0.001). The mean age of patients with PU was higher than patients without PU (61.73 vs. 47.71 years, P<0.001). The mean hemoglobin level of patients with PU was lower than patients without PU (9.93 vs. 12.25, P<0.001). PUs were more common in smokers compared to non-smokers (P<0.001), with a history of PU (P<0.001), a history of diabetes mellitus (P<0.001), and a history of hypertension (P<0.001). The mean length of stay in the hospital for patients with PU was higher than for patients without PU (13.02 vs. 5.54 days, P<0.001). 74.3% of people with PUs were completely immobile (P<0.001), and 60% of them had mild brain damage (GCS of 13 to 15). Also, the number of people with severe and moderate brain injury among PUs patients was 15% and 24.7%, respectively (P<0.001). Mobility, brain damage, Hemoglobin rate and smoking status were risk factors for pressure ulcers.

Conclusion:

Therefore, it is recommended that health managers and policymakers develop care and treatment plans by considering these risk factors.

Keywords: Pressure ulcer, Wounds, Injuries, Trauma nursing, Risk factors, Treatment.