Instruments to Measure Perceptions in the Emergency Department Provider-Patient with Sickle Cell Disease Interaction: Findings of an Integrative Review from a Ph.D. Project

The Open Nursing Journal 15 December 2020 REVIEW ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/1874434602014010263


Background & Purpose:

The purpose of this review is to examine instruments that measure providers' perceptions of adult patients with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), examine instruments that measure adult patients with SCD perceptions of providers' behaviors, and determine optimal instruments to use in evaluating the perceptions of Emergency Department (ED) providers and adult patients with SCD of one another's behaviors after an interaction in the ED.


An integrative review was conducted searching EBSCOhost and PubMed databases using the keywords: measure [OR] measure* [OR] assess* [OR] scale [OR] survey [OR] tool [AND] stigma* [OR] stereotype [OR] prejudice [OR] bias [OR] perception [OR] attitude [OR] discrimination [OR] racism [OR] behavior [AND] interaction [OR] relationship [OR] communication [AND] sickle cell. Initial search located 256 articles, but only 15 articles were included in the final review.


Fifteen articles reporting six instruments were reviewed. Four instruments evaluated a provider’s perceptions of patients with SCD behaviors, and two instruments evaluated how patients with SCD perceived provider behaviors. The two patient-focused instruments and three provider-focused instruments were found to be adequately reliable and valid according to the Psychometric Grading Framework (PGF).


The findings suggest that the General Perceptions About Sickle Cell Disease Patients Scale would be an optimal instrument to evaluate ED providers' perceptions of adult patients with SCD behaviors. One patient-focused instrument, The Sickle Cell Health-Related Stigma Scale (SCD-HRSS), reported adequate reliability and validity but was not specific to measuring the patient's perceptions of ED providers' behaviors, nor was it administered in the ED environment. The SCD-HRSS Doctors subscale has potential adaptability for use in measuring patients with SCD perceptions of ED provider behaviors in the ED environment.

Keywords: Sickle cell disease, Perception, Social stigma, Attitude, Surveys and questionnaires, Emergency service, Hospital.
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