Validation and Assessment of Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy Among Iraqi General Population

Mohanad Naji Sahib, * Open Modal Authors Info & Affiliations
The Open Nursing Journal 31 May 2018 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/1874434601812010076



Poor quality of life, fractures and disability are the consequences of preventable osteoporosis.


The aims of this study were to validate and assess Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES-A) Arabic version among Iraqi general population.


A cross-sectional study with a random cluster sampling method from the community was used. Forward–backward-forward translation method was used to translate the questionnaire from English to Arabic. Beside OSES-A, Osteoporosis Knowledge Tool (OKT) and Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) Arabic versions were used to assess osteoporosis preventive behaviours.


The results showed good face validity and reliability. The construct validity showed two factors which explain 80.86% of the variance. In addition, the result showed low self-efficacy score (658.43±222.014) with 83.33% were found to have low OSES-A level. There were significant associations between age, gender, and self-reported osteoporosis with OSES-A levels. In addition, there were significant differences between age, gender, marital status, family history of osteoporosis, self-reported osteoporosis and osteoporosis diagnosis or screening in relation to total OSES-A scores. Moreover, there were positive correlations between the OSES-A total score with total knowledge and health belief. Multivariate analysis revealed that OKT levels, OHBS levels, age and gender were predictors for OSES-A levels.


This study showed good cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of OSES-A tool and could be used in any osteoprotective educational program.

Keywords: Arabic, General population, Osteoporosis, Preventive behavior, Self-efficacy, Calcium, Vitamin D.
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