The Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Questionnaire on the Nurses’ Recognition of Elder Abuse by Family Caregiver

Atefeh Alipour, Abbas Shamsalinia, Fatemeh Ghaffari, Zahra Fotokian*
Nursing Care Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, I.R. Iran



Exploring the nurses’ recognition of elder abuse and related signs may lead to the knowledge development solutions through the in-service programs. To develop an instrument for the assessment of nurses’ recognition of elder abuse by family caregivers within the Iranian context and psychometrically evaluate its reliability and validity.


The sequential combination exploratory mixed methods design was used to develop the questionnaire format, which involved two sections: the quantitative and qualitative step. The qualitative step included probing the Nurses’ recognition of elder abuse by family caregivers in two steps including the literature and related tools review and semi-structured interviews with nurses. The quantitative step was accomplished in two parts. The validity of questionnaire was checked using face, content, construct, and formal validity; and the reliability was probed using cronbach’s alpha reliability. The analyzed data were categorized into 67 items (three main groups namely evident signs of abuse, elder’s potential to get abused, and family caregiver’s potential to abuse and 6 sub-groups including inadvertency, physical abuse, financial misconduct, psychological abuse, sexual abuse, and risk factors). Three components from the exploratory content analysis gained 58.8% variance totally. The cronbach’s alpha for the 3 components were 0.79, 0.76, and 0.78, respectively.

Result and Conclusion:

The questionnaire on the nurses’ recognition of elder abuse by family caregiver can be applied to a wide variety of settings because of the broad range of methods utilised to generate items and domains, its comprehensive consideration of the principles of elder abuse, and its initial reliability and validity.

Keywords: Nurses’ recognition, Elder abuse, Family caregivers, Designing a questionnaire, Psychometric.

Abstract Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
Publisher Item Identifier: EA-TONURSJ-2018-45

Article History:

Received Date: 24/11/2018
Revision Received Date: 18/01/2018
Acceptance Date: 23/01/2018
Electronic publication date: 06/02/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Alipour et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Correspondence: Address correspondence to this author at the Nursing Care Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran. Postal Code: 4691714141; Tel: +98 (11) 55225151; E-mail: